BEGINNING OF MONARCHY IN INDIA
IKSHVAKU -THE FOUNDER OF THE DYNASTY
The first historically important king of India was Ikshvaku said to be a son of mythical Manu Vaivasvata. He is the founder and ancestor of Sun dynasty . He is reported to have set up his colonies at a number of places and expanded the sphere of influence of the Aryan tribes by struggles, conquests and colonization. The Ramayana clearly describes Ikshvaku as the son of Manu.
Ikshvaku was undoutedly one of the earliest and most important Indo-Aryan monarchs of India, but he is speculated by some scholars (including Max Müller) as having been not a descendant of Manu but the chief of a tribe called Ikshvakus located on the upper reaches of river Indus. He also finds mention in the Rig-Veda (X.60.4.6), where he is described ‘as rich and dazzling’ and his rule is stated to be glorious and full of splendour. The Aryan civilization was established and spread over the Sapta Sindhu region by king Ikshvaku. He established the first stable monarchy after the Deluge, in the early Bronze age probably in the same period the Indus Valley Civilisation was taking shape. The Ramayana supports this view when it says clearly that the first kingdom was established only after the Satya yuga though the Aryan tribes are said to be dominating the Sapta sindhu region for over sixty centuries as the modern researches confirm
Ikshvaku established the rule of law - a law grounded in grace and justice - developed and heralded a golden age during which time Arya-vartha, the Aryan homeland, became a paradise on earth. He is considered one of the wisest, bravest and greatest kings ever. Ikshvaku was also a contemporary of Persian king Jamsheed and king Ukusi of Sumeria. He is said to have defeated the materialistic Panis,who were occupying Afghanistan .Panis later known as Phoenicians were maritime people and business magnates who always quarrelled and fought with the Indian Aryans, living on the banks of the Indus and that the latter knew them as Panis.
Professor. L.A.Waddell ( 1854-1938 ) finds Ikshvaku to be identical with king Ukusi, the first Sumerian king of the first Sumerian dynasty of Kish Chronicle, and with king Agushe and dates his period from 3378 BCE to 3349 BCE . Egyptian king Menes also seems to be ruling at the same time. Modern consensus dates the era of Menes or the start of the first dynasty between c. 3100–3050 BCE. Dr.Beneditti, an eminent Italian scholar places the accession of Ikshvaku in 3197 BCE.
It thus suggests, on the basis of the comparative study of the ancient civilizations from Egypt to China, that the parameters of the recordable historic events of all these nations were evolved almost at the same time sometimes in the 4th millennium BCE and not earlier. Thus there is no reason to doubt the historicity of Ikshvaku and the establishment of Aryan monarchy in India,sometimes in the period 3300 –3100 BCE., on the basis of available evidence ,literary and archaeological. .
Col. James Tod is also of the opinion that the monarchies of Egypt, China and Assyria were established later to the Aryan kingdoms of Sun and Moon .
His kingdom, most probably, lay in the Upper Indus Valley, on both sides of the river Indus or it may be that he was having a colony to the west of the Indus too, guarded by high mountains in the region of north –west.